GRAPHIC TECHNOLOGIES
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AA’s – Abbreviation for author’s alterations indicating that the cost of the change is the responsibility of the author of the change rather than the printer’s responsibility.

Additive Color System – Also known as RGB, this is the color produced by your computer as viewed on the computer screen and other transmitted light sources. The additive primaries combine to form other colors, and mixing all three produces white. RGB must be translated into CMYK before they can be printed on a press.

Application file – May be asked for by the printer to open the designer’s EPS files. It may not be needed for RIP, but can help the printer solve problems without having to contact the customer.

ASCII – (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Pronounced “askee” – a standard format for representing digital information in 8-bit chunks. Information saved in this format can be transferred across different computer platforms.

ASCII file – also called a text file, a text only file, it contains characters, spaces, punctuation carriage returns and sometimes tabs and end-of-file markers, but it contains no formatting information, so text transferred in this form must be reformatted before it can be proofed and printed in its intended form.

Assembly – Electronic placing of all pictures, tint blocks, text and line art in their proper positions within a digital page file.

Bit-mapped – An image that is formed buy a rectangular grid of pixels. The computer assigns a value to each pixel, from one bit of information for black and white images up to 24 bits per pixel for full color images. Bit-mapped graphics are typical of paint programs, which treat images as collections of dots rather than as shapes.

Bit-mapped font – Each character is composed of a pattern of dots. Macintosh screen fonts are an example.

Bleed – Extending an image beyond the finished size so that when the printed product is trimmed, the image runs to the edge of the page. The standard bleed allowance Ό inch on all sides.

Blends – The overprinting of two or more vignettes to create a series of secondary overprinted colors.

Blueline – Proofs for commercial printing jobs made from the impositioned film before plating or printing. All elements of the final printed piece are shown in place and any errors in stripping are revealed. It is a representation of the final printed product although the actual color is not displayed. Also known as dylux.

Camera /ready – In printing, a document is camera ready when all text and graphic elements are in position, ready to be processed by a single camera shot that produces a negative form which plates are made for printing.

CMYK (Cyan, magenta, yellow, Black) The subtractive primary colors also known as process colors, used in color printing.

Color Break – The process of dividing a monochrome representation of a page so that the appropriate areas will proof or print in the appropriate color.

Color Key – This is a color overlay made up of cyan, magenta, yellow and black which is processed from the final film for a print job and is a representation of four-color process graphics. Color Key is used generically, but is actually a brand of the product, which is produced by 2M. Examples of proofs made using final film for printing are Color Key, Chromalin, Match Print and Press Match.

Color Separation – The process of using a process camera, scanner or computer to divide a continuous tone color image or graphic into four film images representing cyan, magenta, yellow and black to make the image printable. Spot color or flat color must also be separated before it can be printed.

Contrast – The relationship between the lightest and the darkest areas of an image. Especially important when scanning halftones.

Creep - the offset which occurs inside a signature.

Crop – To eliminate portions of the copy, usually on a photograph or a plate, indicated on the original by crop marks.

Crop Marks – Symbols placed in the margin outside the image area that indicate to the printer the area to be printed and/or trimmed from the image during the final finishing process.

Dot – The individual element of a halftone or screen.

Dot Gain- The dot size increase from film to printed piece. Dot gain can be simulated on a video monitor by adjusting the white point and contrast. Dot gain is the physical enlargement of the dot caused by plate exposure image spread, by the pressure between the plate blanket and impression cylinder of a press, or by ink spread as it penetrates the paper. A dot gain of 25 to 30% is common on web presses.

Dots per Inch – (DPI) A measure of screen and printer resolution that is expressed as the number of dots that a device can print or display per linear inch.

Drop out – Halftone dots or fine lines eliminated from highlights by over exposure during camera work. The lost copy is said to have dropped out. Dropouts may be done on purpose or accidentally.

Drop Shadow – Screen tints or rules touching an illustration, box or type to give a tree dimensional shadow effect. Also called a flat shadow.

Drum Scanner – An optical device for converting an optical image to an electronic image. This is done by mounting the original copy on a revolving drum or cylinder and with the use of light and a photo-detector the image is digitized and stored.

Dummy – A preliminary layout showing the position of graphics and text as they are to appear in the final reproduction. Also a set of blank pages made up to show the size, shape, form and style of a prospective piece or a set of pages representing the finished book used by the printer to impose page numbers on the appropriate signature.

Duotone – Printing a monochrome photograph in two colors for a special effect.

Emulsion – The coating of light sensitive material on a piece of film. The dull side of a negative.

Film – A transparent material coated with a light sensitive substance.

Film Negative – A piece of film with a reversed image of the original, in which dark areas appear white, and vice versa. In the U.S., the film negative is the image carrier used to produce printing plates.

Film Positive – This piece of film is the opposite image of the film negative. Dark areas from the original are dark and light areas are light.

Filters – Processing effects used to manipulate photographic images to control color or contrast or to add special effects.

Four Color process – the method of printing process color using separations and the four colored inks: cyan, magenta, yellow and black.

Gradation – A smooth transition between black and white, one color and another, or color and the lack of it.

Grain – The extent to which an overall granulated patterning appears in a photograph, due to chemical and physical characteristics of the film, paper or development process.

Gray scale – The range of gray tones between black and white. A gray scale monitor is able to display distinct gray pixels as well as black and white ones, but not color pixels.

Gloss – A shiny coating on a paper is called a gloss finish. Gloss coatings allow very little ink absorption and offer excellent color definition.

Gripper edge – The leading edge of paper as it passes through a printing press.

Gutter – The blank space of inner margin from printing area to binding.

Halftone – the printed reproduction of a photograph or other illustration as a set of tiny, evenly spaced dots of variable diameter that, when printed, usually blur together to appear as shades of gray.

Highlight – The lightest part of an image.

Image setter – An imagesetter is basically an extremely high quality printer. Imagesetters are used to create the film from computer based prepress operations. In process color work the imagesetter creates the separated, output film by printing the image four times (once each in Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and black) using four different screen angles for each color.

Imposition – The correct positioning of pages on a press sheet so that when the press sheet is folded to form a signature, the pages are in correct numerical sequence.

Line screen – Also known as a straight-line screen. A screen that converts continuous tone copy to lines. As compared to a halftone screen which converts the image to dots.

Lines Per Inch (LPI) – Lines per inch refers to the screen ruling for the halftones and color separations in an electronic mechanical. Screen values will vary with process, paper, ink and the quality/detail necessarily to reproduce the image. Eagle Web Press utilizes 85 – 100 line screens.

Moire – An objectionable interference pattern caused by superimposing one regular pattern over another such as with halftones and screen tints, Moires can be caused by misalignment, incorrect screen angles, slipping or slur.

Pantone Matching System – Often referred to as PMS, the Pantone systems are the most popular color matching systems in the printing industry. A mixture of inks that will provide a specific color defines a true PMS color (e.g. PMS 185 is a very common bright red color). Pantone also provides a matching system that allows process printers (using only CMYK inks) to closely, but not exactly, match any of the PMS standard ink colors. Pantone, PMS and the Pantone Matching System are trademarks of Pantone,Inc.

Prepress - A collective term for the steps necessary to go from original artwork (IN MECHANICAL OR DIGITAL FORM) to film, to page imposition, to printing plates. In the digital process, these steps are carried out by computerized systems.

Process Colors – (CMYK) The subtractive primary color, or process colors used in color printing. When dot screens of these four colors are combined in different densities, wide ranges of colors are possible. Also called Four Color Process.

Blueline – Proofs for commercial printing jobs. Bluelines show position o type and visuals and reveal any errors in stripping. They are known by many other names, such as brownline,Dylux, ozalid, silverprint and VanDyke.

Register - The arrangement of two or more images in exact alignment with each other.

Register marks - Any crossmarks or other symbols used on layout to assure proper registration

Scaling - The enlargement or reduction of an image or copy to fit a specific area.

Screen angles - The placement of halftone screens to avoid unwanted moire patterns. Frequently used angles are black 45Ί, magenta 75Ί, yellow 90Ί, and cyan 105Ί.

Screened print - A photo print made by using a halftone negative; also called a velox.

Signature - A printed sheet with many pages on it which is folded so that the pages are in their proper numbered sequence, as in a book

Step and repeat - A process of generating multiple exposures by taking an image and stepping it according to a predetermined layout.

Tint - A halftone screen that contains all the same sized dots.

Transparent - Inks that do not block out the colored inks that they print over, but instead blend with them to create intermediate colors.

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